The outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection varies among individuals, but the genetic factors involved remain unknown. We conducted a population-based association study in which 238 Japanese individuals positive for anti-HCV antibody were genotyped for 269 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 103 candidate genes that might influence the course of infection. Altogether, 50 SNPs in 32 genes were listed. Genetic polymorphisms in IL4, IL8RB, IL10RA, PRL, ADA, NFKB1, GRAP2, CABIN1, IFNAR2, IFI27, IFI41, TNFRSF1A, ALDOB, AP1B1, SULT2B1, EGF, EGFR, TGFB1, LTBP2, and CD4 were associated with persistent viremia (P < 0.05), whereas those in IL1B, IL1RL1, IL2RB, IL12RB1, IL18R1, STAT5A, GRAP2, CABIN1, IFNAR1, Mx1, BMP8, FGL1, LTBP2, CD34, and CD80 were associated with different serum alanine aminotransferase levels in HCV carriers (P < 0.05). The sorted genes allow us to draw novel hypotheses for future studies of HCV infection to ultimately identify bona fide genes and their variations.