Regulation at complex bacterial promoters: how bacteria use different promoter organizations to produce different regulatory outcomes

Curr Opin Microbiol. 2004 Apr;7(2):102-8. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2004.02.011.


Most bacterial promoters are regulated by several signals. This is reflected in the complexity of their organization, with multiple binding sites for different transcription factors. Studies of a small number of complex promoters have revealed different distinct mechanisms that integrate the effects of multiple transcription factors.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Escherichia coli / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial / physiology*
  • Genes, Bacterial / physiology*
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / physiology*