Cyclic di-guanosine-monophosphate comes of age: a novel secondary messenger involved in modulating cell surface structures in bacteria?

Curr Opin Microbiol. 2004 Apr;7(2):185-91. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2004.02.007.


The cyclic nucleotide cyclic di-guanosine-monophosphate (c-diGMP) was recognized in the 1980s as a signaling compound that is involved in controlling the condensation of glucose moieties into cellulose polymers. More recent data from several different bacterial species now suggest that c-diGMP might have a general role as secondary messenger in modulating bacterial growth on surfaces by regulating cellular adhesion components and preparing cells for cell-cell and cell-surface interactions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacteria / metabolism*
  • Bacterial Adhesion / physiology
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Cyclic GMP / analogs & derivatives*
  • Cyclic GMP / metabolism*
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Second Messenger Systems / physiology*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • bis(3',5')-cyclic diguanylic acid
  • Cyclic GMP