Individualized outcome prediction classifiers were successfully constructed through expression profiling of a total of 8644 genes in 50 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, which had been consecutively operated on within a defined short period of time and followed up for more than 5 years. The resultant classifier of NSCLCs yielded 82% accuracy for forecasting survival or death 5 years after surgery of a given patient. In addition, since two major histologic classes may differ in terms of outcome-related expression signatures, histologic-type-specific outcome classifiers were also constructed. The resultant highly predictive classifiers, designed specifically for nonsquamous cell carcinomas, showed a prediction accuracy of more than 90% independent of disease stage. In addition to the presence of heterogeneities in adenocarcinomas, our unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis revealed for the first time the existence of clinicopathologically relevant subclasses of squamous cell carcinomas with marked differences in their invasive growth and prognosis. This finding clearly suggests that NSCLCs comprise distinct subclasses with considerable heterogeneities even within one histologic type. Overall, these findings should advance not only our understanding of the biology of lung cancer but also our ability to individualize postoperative therapies based on the predicted outcome.