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, 21 (1), 54-9, 101-2

[Preservation of Alveolar Bone of Un-Restorable Traumatized Maxillary Incisors for Future]

[Article in Hebrew]
Affiliations
  • PMID: 15065385

[Preservation of Alveolar Bone of Un-Restorable Traumatized Maxillary Incisors for Future]

[Article in Hebrew]
I Levin et al. Refuat Hapeh Vehashinayim (1993).

Abstract

Anterior maxillary implantation is a challenging treatment for both the surgeon and prosthodontist due to high esthetic demands in this area. However, it is the most traumatized and most exposed region to habits. Prompt and appropriate management can significantly improve prognosis of many dentoalveolar injuries, especially in young patients. Unfortunately, many traumatized teeth are overtreated or left untreated, which lead to a much more complicated treatment at the time of permanent restoration at adulthood. The facial cortical plate over the roots of the maxillary teeth is thin and porous. Periapical infections, as well as prolonged and stubborn surgical treatments (repeated root end surgeries) can cause resorption of the labial plate, migrate to a more palatal position, and may later require an augmentation procedure prior to implant placement. The treatment-options of traumatized, anterior maxillary, un-restorable fractured root and ankylosed infraocluded teeth, in relation to preservation of the adjacent alveolar bone for future use of dental implantation will be discussed. The recommended treatment of crown-root fracture of permanent incisor includes removal of the coronal fragment and supragingival restoration of the fractured root. In severe cases in which the fracture line positions deeply under the gingival margin, this treatment may be supplemented by gingivectomy and/or osteotomy, as well as surgical or orthodontic extrusion of the root. In young patients, use of these treatment options as temporary treatment to preserve the facial cortical plate is important. Preservation of alveolar dimension will enable implantation after the completion of growth and development. Dento-alveolar ankylosis accompanied by replacement resorption is a serious complication following severe injury to the periodontal membrane. This complication develops mainly following avulsion and intrusion but also following lateral luxation and root fracture. Replacement resorption develops after severe damage to the periodontal ligament cells that cover the root surface. As a result of this damage, the periodontal ligament is replaced by bone tissue, causing ankylosis between bone and tooth. Following ankylosis, resorption of cementum and root dentin occurs. These processes eventually result in replacement of the entire root by bone. In young children it could arrest the growth of the alveolar process and create an infra-occluded tooth, resulting in a severe bony defect that is difficult to correct. In addition, loss of the maxillary incisor leads to serious esthetic and restorative problems, particularly when the trauma occurs at a young age. Therefore, ankylosed teeth should be treated as soon as diagnosed. Alternative treatments include intentional extraction and immediate replantation of the ankylosed tooth to its socket after embedding the tooth and the socket in Emdogain. This treatment is indicated only when the ankylosis or the replacement resorption is diagnosed at an early stage or has affected only a small area of the root. When the resorption is diagnosed at a later stage, auto transplantation of first lower pre-molar to the anterior region or decoronation of the ankylosed tooth may be considered. Decoronation is a simple and safe surgical procedure for preservation of alveolar bone prior to implant placement. It should be considered as a treatment option for teeth affected by replacement resorption. The alternative treatment of surgical extraction of an ankylosed tooth often leads to considerable bone loss and reduced bone volume in the oro-facial dimension. This may later necessitate an augmentation procedure.

Conclusion: Scrupulous diagnosis of teeth and the alveolar bone after a traumatic injury is necessary. Treatment is multidisciplinary, requiring endodontic, surgical, orthodontic, operative and prosthetic compliance. An individual treatment plan for each patient is necessary. General rule do not apply. Periodic check-up is essential.

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