The role of primary and secondary control in adaptation to age-related vision loss: a study of older adults with macular degeneration

Psychol Aging. 2004 Mar;19(1):235-9. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.19.1.235.


This study examines the effect of primary and secondary control on 3 major outcomes experienced by visually impaired older adults, that is, functional ability, adaptation to vision loss, and positive affect. The authors' theoretical model is based on the J. Heckhausen and R. Schulz (1995) control framework, as well as a conceptual integration of these outcomes, and they hypothesized that control beliefs can substantially contribute to explaining interindividual differences in these outcomes. A path model applied to data from a sample (N = 90) of visually impaired older adults, suffering from age-related macular degeneration, the major cause of vision loss in old age, generally supports this expectation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological*
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Macular Degeneration / complications*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Vision Disorders / diagnosis
  • Vision Disorders / etiology*
  • Visual Acuity