The dependence construct fills an important explanatory role in motivational accounts of smoking and relapse. Frequently used measures of dependence are either atheoretical or grounded in a unidimensional model of physical dependence. This research creates a multidimensional measure of dependence that is based on theoretically grounded motives for drug use and is intended to reflect mechanisms underlying dependence. Data collected from a large sample of smokers (N = 775) indicated that all 13 subscales of the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68) have acceptable internal consistency, are differentially present across levels of smoking heaviness, and have a multidimensional structure. Validity analyses indicated the WISDM-68 subscales are significantly related to dependence criteria such as smoking heaviness and to 4th edition Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders symptoms of dependence and relapse.