Using SAT-grade and ability-job performance relationships to test predictions derived from stereotype threat theory

J Appl Psychol. 2004 Apr;89(2):220-30. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.89.2.220.


To examine the generalizability of stereotype threat theory findings from laboratory to applied settings, the authors developed models of the pattern of relationships between cognitive test scores and outcome criteria that would be expected if the test scores of women and minority group members were affected by stereotype threat. Two large data sets were used to test these models, one in an education setting examining SAT-grade relationships by race and gender and the other in a military job setting examining Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery-job performance relationships by race. Findings were not supportive of the predictions arising from stereotype threat theory, suggesting caution in positing threat as a key determinant of subgroup mean test score differences in applied settings.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Achievement*
  • Aptitude Tests*
  • Black or African American / psychology*
  • Employment / psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Psychological Theory*
  • Regression Analysis
  • Stereotyping*
  • Students / psychology
  • United States
  • White People / psychology
  • Women / psychology*