Xenogeneic DNA vaccination can elicit tumor immunity through T cell and antibody-dependent effector mechanisms. Blockade of CTLA-4 engagement with B7 expressed on APCs has been shown to enhance T cell-dependent immunity. We investigated whether CTLA-4 blockade could increase T-cell responses and tumor immunity elicited by DNA vaccines. CTLA-4 blockade enhanced B16 tumor rejection in mice immunized against the melanoma differentiation antigens tyrosinase-related protein 2 and gp100, and this effect was stronger when anti-CTLA-4 was administered with booster vaccinations. CTLA-4 blockade also increased the T-cell responses to prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) when given with the second or third vaccination. Based on these pre-clinical studies, we suggest that anti-CTLA-4 should be tested with xenogeneic DNA vaccines against cancer and that special attention should be given to sequence and schedule of administration.