We conducted a study using cDNA microarray analysis to determine whether expression levels of genes in tumors were correlated with survival after chemotherapy. Between September 2000 and December 2001, 47 patients were registered in the study. Eighteen patients had small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and the others had non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). All patients except three received platinum-based chemotherapy. Transbroncheal biopsy specimens of tumors were obtained before chemotherapy. The expression levels of 1176 genes in tumor specimens were analyzed using the Atlas Human Cancer 1.2 Array. The expression levels of three genes, G1/S-specific cyclin, type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase and hepatocyte growth factor-like protein, were significantly correlated with survival (p<0.01). Ten of the 47 patients who showed an elevated expression level of one or more of the three genes had a significantly increased chance of survival (p=0.0056). In conclusion, some survival-related genes were detected in the tumor tissue of lung cancer patients using cDNA microarray analysis. A prospective study is required to confirm whether expression levels of these genes can be used for prognosis.