Purpose: This study was undertaken to define the long-term effects of renal revascularization on blood pressure, and renal and cardiac function in patients with Takayasu arteritis-induced renal artery stenosis (TARAS).
Methods: Twenty-seven patients (25 women; mean age, 27 years) with TARAS underwent intervention. Primary, primary assisted, and secondary patency rates were determined, and the late effects on blood pressure, renal and cardiac function, and survival were analyzed.
Results: All patients had hypertension (mean blood pressure, 167/99 mm Hg; 2.5 antihypertensive medications per patient). Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients not receiving hemodialysis was 76 mL/min, and in five patients serum creatinine concentration was greater than 1.5 mg/dL. Three patients were hemodialysis-dependent, and two had intractable congestive heart failure. Forty interventions were performed, including 32 aortorenal bypass procedures, two repeat implantations, four nephrectomies, and two transluminal angioplasty procedures. Postoperative morbidity was 19%. There were no deaths. During follow-up (mean, 68 months), three graft stenoses, all due to intimal hyperplasia, and three graft occlusions occurred. Two of three graft stenoses were successfully revised. At 1, 3, and 5 years of follow-up, primary patency was 87%, 79%, and 79%, respectively; primary assisted patency was 93%, 89%, 89%, respectively; and secondary patency was 93%, 89%, and 89%, respectively. Intervention resulted in a decrease in blood pressure to a mean of 132/79 mm Hg (P<.0001), and the need for antihypertensive medications was reduced to one per patient (P<.01). Mean glomerular filtration rate increased to 88 mL/min (P<.005), and two patients no longer required hemodialysis. Congestive heart failure resolved in both patients, and did not recur. There were three deaths during follow-up, with 5-year and 10-year actuarial survival of 96% and 80%, respectively.
Conclusions: Renal revascularization to treat TARAS is durable, has a salutary effect on blood pressure, and enhances long-term renal and cardiac function. This response establishes renal revascularization as a successful and durable intervention for TARAS, and a benchmark to which other therapies should be compared.