The effect of tobacco ingredients on smoke chemistry. Part II: casing ingredients

Food Chem Toxicol. 2004:42 Suppl:S39-52. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2003.08.009.


This is the second part of a study in which the effects of adding a range of ingredients to tobacco on the chemistry of cigarette mainstream smoke are assessed. The examination of smoke chemistry has concentrated on those constituents in smoke that regulatory authorities in the USA and Canada believe to be relevant to smoking-related diseases. In this part of the study the effects of 29 casing ingredients and three humectants have been assessed at the maximum levels typically used on cigarettes by British American Tobacco. This brings the total number of ingredients assessed in Parts I and II of this study to 482. The casing ingredients were added at levels of up to 68 mg on the cigarettes. Their effects on smoke constituents were generally larger than the effects of flavouring ingredients, which were added at parts per million levels. Many of the casing ingredient mixtures either had no statistically significant effect on the level of the analytes investigated in smoke relative to a control cigarette, or they produced decreases of up to 44% in some cases. Those analytes that were increased in smoke are highlighted in this paper. The largest increases were for formaldehyde levels, up to 26 microg (73%) in one case, observed from casing mixtures containing sugar. This is most likely due to the generation of formaldehyde by pyrolysis of sugars. Occasional small increases were also observed for other analytes. However, the statistical significance of many of these increases was not present when the long-term variability of the analytical method was taken into account. The significance and possible reasons for the increases are discussed.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Canada
  • Chromatography, Gas / methods
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Humans
  • Smoke / analysis*
  • Spectrophotometry, Infrared / methods
  • Tars / analysis
  • Tobacco / chemistry*
  • Tobacco Industry
  • United States


  • Smoke
  • Tars
  • tobacco tar