Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), initially identified as an LPS receptor, is critical to the signaling of a variety of danger signals, including heat shock protein 60, fibrinogen, and fibronectin. Recent data also suggest that TLR-4 plays a role in determining survival in both endotoxemia and hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that a functional TLR-4 would be required for hemorrhage and endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. Hemorrhage- and endotoxin-induced lung TNF-alpha mRNA and protein production, neutrophil accumulation, and protein permeability were dependent on a functional TLR-4. Hemorrhage-induced nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation was independent of functional TLR-4, whereas endotoxin-induced activation of NF-kappaB requires a functional TLR-4 for full response. Therefore, we conclude that 1) hemorrhage-induced acute lung injury is TLR-4 dependent and 2) hemorrhage has a different and distinct TLR-4-dependent intracellular activation mechanism compared with endotoxemia.