The aim of the current study was to measure the concentrations of erythropoietin in the vitreous fluid and analyze its association with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ischemic vitreoretinal diseases. Vitreous fluid samples were collected from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, branch retinal vein occlusion and idiopathic macular hole. Concentrations of erythropoietin and VEGF in vitreous fluid were significantly elevated in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and branch retinal vein occlusion as compared to patients with macular hole. There were no differences in serum concentrations of erythropoietin and VEGF among patient groups. There was significant correlation between erythropoietin and VEGF concentrations in vitreous fluid. Erythropoietin was up-regulated in ischemic disorders and may act as an endogenous neuroprotective factor against ischemic retinal disorders.