Objective: Development of a data-based short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for evaluating intake of nutrients by middle-aged Japanese.
Methods: Of 102 foods listed in the formerly developed semi-quantitative FFQ, foods having similar nutrient contents were combined into 72 foods/food groups by research dietitians. Nutrient contents were computed by multiplying the weight of foods consumed and its nutrient contents. Next, a cumulative multiple regression coefficient up to 0.85 was applied, and 47 foods/food groups were chosen for a brief FFQ for assessing intake of 21 nutrients including energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers.
Results: The 47 foods/food groups comprised rice, bread and noodles (3), margarine/butter (2), eggs (1), milk and dairy products (2), soybean and soybean products (3), miso-soup (1), meat including beef, pork and chicken (4), fish (3), other fish, shellfish and fish products (4), green-yellow vegetables (5), other vegetables and mushrooms (3), edible roots (4), seaweeds (1), mayonnaise (1), fried dishes (2), seeds (1), fruit (2), beverages, including alcohol (3), and confectioneries (2).
Conclusions: The evidence-based short FFQ efficiently covered the intake of 21 nutrients, and may be competent to rank the middle-aged general public Japanese according to intake of nutrients.