An overview of gibberellin metabolism enzyme genes and their related mutants in rice

Plant Physiol. 2004 Apr;134(4):1642-53. doi: 10.1104/pp.103.033696. Epub 2004 Apr 9.


To enhance our understanding of GA metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa), we intensively screened and identified 29 candidate genes encoding the following GA metabolic enzymes using all available rice DNA databases: ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), ent-kaurene synthase (KS), ent-kaurene oxidase (KO), ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox). In contrast to the Arabidopsis genome, multiple CPS-like, KS-like, and KO-like genes were identified in the rice genome, most of which are contiguously arranged. We also identified 18 GA-deficient rice mutants at six different loci from rice mutant collections. Based on the mutant and expression analyses, we demonstrated that the enzymes catalyzing the early steps in the GA biosynthetic pathway (i.e. CPS, KS, KO, and KAO) are mainly encoded by single genes, while those for later steps (i.e. GA20ox, GA3ox, and GA2ox) are encoded by gene families. The remaining CPS-like, KS-like, and KO-like genes were likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of diterpene phytoalexins rather than GAs because the expression of two CPS-like and three KS-like genes (OsCPS2, OsCPS4, OsKS4, OsKS7, and OsKS8) were increased by UV irradiation, and four of these genes (OsCPS2, OsCPS4, OsKS4, and OsKS7) were also induced by an elicitor treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alkyl and Aryl Transferases / genetics
  • Alkyl and Aryl Transferases / metabolism
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism
  • Enzymes / genetics*
  • Enzymes / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Gibberellins / metabolism*
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases / genetics
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases / metabolism
  • Mutation
  • Oryza / enzymology
  • Oryza / genetics*
  • Oryza / metabolism
  • Oxygenases / genetics
  • Oxygenases / metabolism
  • Phylogeny
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Enzymes
  • Gibberellins
  • Plant Proteins
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Mixed Function Oxygenases
  • Oxygenases
  • gibberellin, 2-oxoglutarate-oxygen oxidoreductase (20-hydroxylating, oxidizing)
  • AtGA2ox7 protein, Arabidopsis
  • AtGA2ox8 protein, Arabidopsis
  • gibberellin 2-dioxygenase
  • ent-kaurene oxidase
  • ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase
  • gibberellin 3beta-hydroxylase
  • Alkyl and Aryl Transferases
  • ent-kaurene synthetase A
  • ent-kaurene synthetase B