Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a model organism for studying the energy metabolism of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and for understanding the economic impacts of SRB, including biocorrosion of metal infrastructure and bioremediation of toxic metal ions. The 3,570,858 base pair (bp) genome sequence reveals a network of novel c-type cytochromes, connecting multiple periplasmic hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenases, as a key feature of its energy metabolism. The relative arrangement of genes encoding enzymes for energy transduction, together with inferred cellular location of the enzymes, provides a basis for proposing an expansion to the 'hydrogen-cycling' model for increasing energy efficiency in this bacterium. Plasmid-encoded functions include modification of cell surface components, nitrogen fixation and a type-III protein secretion system. This genome sequence represents a substantial step toward the elucidation of pathways for reduction (and bioremediation) of pollutants such as uranium and chromium and offers a new starting point for defining this organism's complex anaerobic respiration.