A compact structure of the hepatitis B virus genome does not provide much space for development of mutations capable of further replication. In spite of that, 7 genotypes have been described so far. Discovery of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome diversity led to a range of further questions. Individual genotypes are subjects of investigation these days as for the pattern of disease transmission, course of disease, and consequences of an infection. The aim of this pilot study was to describe genotype distribution in the infected population of the Czech Republic. Moreover, epidemiological and clinical characteristics were monitored in our sample. We studied a group of 65 patients with positive HBsAg from which 48 samples of patients were genotyped. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) method was used in order to amplify S region of the HBV genome. Direct sequencing of PCR products was used, this is the most accurate method for genotype identification. A relatively uniform genotypic distribution was identified within the study population--only 2 genotypes, A and D, were found. Genotype A was identified in 35 (73%) patients and genotype D in 13 (27%) patients. No statistically significant association between the particular genotype and epidemiological and clinical parameters was proved in this pilot study. This study brings basic information on genotype distribution. A possible proof of correlation with clinical and epidemiological characteristics will require examination of a larger sample of patients.