The R3 locus of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) confers full resistance to avirulent isolates of Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight. R3 resides in the distal part of chromosome 11 and segregates in a potato mapping population, from which a well-saturated amplified fragment length polymorphism map is available. Using a population of 1,748 plants, we constructed a high-resolution genetic map at the R3 locus. Using the combination of fine mapping and accurate disease testing with specific P. infestans isolates, we detected that the R3 locus is composed of two genes with distinct specificities. The two genes R3a and R3b are 0.4 cM apart and have both been introgressed from S. demissum, the 'donor' species of most characterized race-specific R genes to P. infestans. A natural recombinant between R3a and R3b was discovered in one accession of S. demissum. The synteny between the R3 locus and the tomato I2 locus is discussed.