The genus Madurella, described for non-sporulating agents of human mycetoma, is proven to be heterogeneous on the basis of rDNA small subunit (SSU) and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequencing data. Madurella mycetomatis, the main agent of mycetoma in arid zones of Central and East Africa, probably belongs to the ascomycete order Sordariales. Madurella mycetomatis, the generic type species, is neotypified. Madurella grisea, with worldwide occurrence, is likely to be a member of the order Pleosporales, just as the mycetoma agents of Leptosphaeria, Pseudochaetosphaeronema, and Pyrenochaeta. Neotestudina rosatii belongs to the order Dothideales. Judging from ITS data, M. mycetomatis and N. rosatii are species complexes. The ex-type strain of N. rosatii, from a human mycetome, has an ITS sequence that deviates from that of environmental strains of the species.