It has been reported that the fruits and leaves of berries such as the blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry contain a high level of scavenging activity for chemically generated active oxygen species. This study investigated the antioxidative activities of black chokeberry fruit (Aronia melanocarpa Elliot) both in vitro and in vivo using the DPPH stable radical and rats with ethanol-induced gastric injury, respectively. The red pigment fraction of the black chokeberry contained three main components, one of which was identified as cyanidin 3-O-beta-glucoside by HPLC analysis and (1)H NMR. The black chokeberry red pigment fraction scavenged >44% of DPPH radicals at a concentration of 25 microg/mL compared to the control solution. The black chokeberry extract and its hydrolysate administrated at 2 g/kg of body weight each had nearly the same protective effect as quercetin administrated at 100 mg/kg of body weight in suppressing the area of gastric mucosal damage caused by the subsequent application of ethanol to <30% compared to the control group. The black chokeberry red pigment fraction had a similarly significant protective effect on gastric mucosa in a dose-dependent manner when administered at 30-300 mg/kg of body weight, and the administration of 30 mg/kg of body weight could suppress ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage by approximately 50% (ID(50) = 30 mg/kg of body weight).