Social cognitive neuroscience is an emerging discipline that seeks to explain the psychological and neural bases of socioemotional experience and behavior. Although research in some areas is already well developed (e.g. perception of nonverbal social cues) investigation in other areas has only just begun (e.g. social interaction). Current studies are elucidating; the role of the amygdala in a variety of evaluative and social judgment processes, the role of medial prefrontal cortex in mental state attribution, how frontally mediated controlled processes can regulate perception and experience, and the way in which these and other systems are recruited during social interaction. Future progress will depend upon the development of programmatic lines of research that integrate contemporary social cognitive research with cognitive neuroscience theory and methodology.