Endoscopic brow lift: a personal review of 538 patients and comparison of fixation techniques

Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004 Apr 1;113(4):1242-50; discussion 1251-2. doi: 10.1097/01.prs.0000110206.25586.78.


Since the introduction of endoscopic brow lifting in the mid-1990s, it has become widely accepted as a method for rejuvenation of the upper third of the face. Despite the multitude of brow fixation techniques, there are few long-term studies providing accurate analysis of outcome. The aims of this investigation were to evaluate the long-term objective results of endoscopic brow lifting and to establish whether the technique of fixation altered the longevity of aesthetic outcome. The outcome of endoscopic brow lifts carried out on 538 consecutive patients over a 6-year period was assessed. For each patient, midpupil-to-brow distance was measured preoperatively and at intervals postoperatively. Two different fixation methods were compared: fibrin glue (n = 189, group 1; 104 records available) and polydioxanone sutures tied through bone tunnels (n = 349, group 2; 220 records available). In 214 patients, an upper lid blepharoplasty was performed simultaneously (85 in group 1 and 129 in group 2). At 1 month postoperatively, each fixation technique had produced a significant change in mean pupil to brow height (5.93 mm in group 1 and 6.21 mm in group 2, with no significant difference between the two methods; p = 0.17). However, when measurements were compared more than 3 months postoperatively (mean, 9.4 months), there was a significant difference, with some relapse in the patients treated with fibrin glue (p < 0.01). However, in group 2 (tunnel fixation), measurements remained stable, with 6.21 mm at 1 month compared with 6.16 mm long term (no significant difference, p = 0.34). In contrast, in group 1 (fibrin glue), measurements showed significant reduction, with a 1-month result of 5.93 mm and a long-term outcome of 3.79 mm (p < 0.01). Upper lid blepharoplasty had no effect on the long-term outcome of either group (p > 0.3 in group 1, p > 0.4 in group 2). Complications were few in both groups. In group 1, there was one infection, two instances of significant alopecia (both temporary), and one reoperation for relapse. In group 2, four patients required minor surgical revision of a lateral port scar and three minor areas of temporal alopecia, which recovered in less than 3 months. One patient had a paresis of the frontal branch that had recovered after 4 months. The endoscopic brow lift is therefore a safe and effective technique for increasing mean pupil to brow height. Fixation with polydioxanone sutures tied through bone tunnels produces a significantly more stable result than fibrin glue, without greater risk. This lends weight to experimental evidence that periosteal fixation must be maintained for at least 6 weeks to be secure.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Blepharoplasty
  • Endoscopy*
  • Eyebrows*
  • Female
  • Fibrin Tissue Adhesive / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Reconstructive Surgical Procedures*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Suture Techniques
  • Tissue Adhesives / therapeutic use


  • Fibrin Tissue Adhesive
  • Tissue Adhesives