Using immunoblotting with recombinant recoverin as an antigen, we have examined 279 serum samples from individuals with small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC, 99 patients), non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC, 44 patients), and non-malignant pulmonary disorders (86 patients) as well as sera from 50 healthy donors. Autoantibodies against recoverin (anti-Rc) were detected in sera from 15 patients with SCLC (15% of cases) and from 9 patients with NSCLC (about 20% of cases). Only two anti-Rc positive cases were detected in patients with non-malignant pulmonary disorders, while no such cases were found in healthy individuals. Immunohistochemical investigation of paraffin sections of 44 SCLC and 40 NSCLC tumors revealed recoverin-positive reaction in 30 SCLC (68%) and 34 NSCLC (85%) sections. Despite the high specificity (98%), the low sensitivity (less than 20%) does not allow serum anti-Rc to be considered as a valuable marker of lung cancer. However, taking into account the high occurrence of aberrant expression of recoverin in lung tumors, this PNA could be considered as a potential target for immunotherapy of lung cancer.