Background: Diastolic dysfunction is frequent in adults with renal failure. However, in children with mild-to-moderate chronic renal insufficiency (CRI), it has not been evaluated. We compared diastolic function and assessed risk factors associated with diastolic dysfunction in children with CRI with those on dialysis.
Methods: Thirty-three children with CRI, 17 on chronic dialysis, and 33 control patients, had echocardiography performed. Early diastole was assessed using indices of left ventricular (LV) relaxation derived from transmitral and tissue Doppler, and reported as the peak E/A wave ratio, and septal mitral annular velocities (Em). Late diastole was determined using an index of LV compliance (E/Em ratio). Left atrial (LA) dimension was also determined.
Results: Children with CRI had worse diastolic function (lower Em, and higher E/Em ratio than control patients, P < 0.001). Dialysis patients had worse diastolic function (lower E/A ratio and Em, and higher E/Em ratio, P < 0.001) than CRI children. LA dimension was higher in renal patients when compared with control patients (P < 0.001). In children on dialysis, LV relaxation (Em) was significantly related to left ventricular mass (LVM) index (r=-0.58, P= 0.04), and LV compliance (E/Em) was significantly associated with LA index (r= 0.67, P= 0.01), LVM index (r= 0.75, P < 0.01), hemoglobin level (r=-0.65, P= 0.02), serum phosphorus (r= 0.56, P= 0.05), and calcium-phosphorus ion product (r= 0.59, P= 0.04).
Conclusion: Our results indicate that diastolic dysfunction is already present in children with mild-to-moderate CRI. Worse diastolic function in dialysis patients might be related to LV hypertrophy. The results suggest that children with advanced renal failure and diastolic dysfunction may be at risk for ultimate worsening of cardiac function over time.