A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

Plant J. 2004 May;38(3):448-59. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2004.02057.x.


We identified a novel mutation of a nuclear-encoded gene, designated as CRUMPLED LEAF (CRL), of Arabidopsis thaliana that affects the morphogenesis of all plant organs and division of plastids. Histological analysis revealed that planes of cell division were distorted in shoot apical meristems (SAMs), root tips, and embryos in plants that possess the crl mutation. Furthermore, we observed that differentiation patterns of cortex and endodermis cells in inflorescence stems and root endodermis cells were disturbed in the crl mutant. These results suggest that morphological abnormalities observed in the crl mutant were because of aberrant cell division and differentiation. In addition, cells of the crl mutant contained a reduced number of enlarged plastids, indicating that the division of plastids was inhibited in the crl. The CRL gene encodes a novel protein with a molecular mass of 30 kDa that is localized in the plastid envelope. The CRL protein is conserved in various plant species, including a fern, and in cyanobacteria, but not in other organisms. These data suggest that the CRL protein is required for plastid division, and it also plays an important role in cell differentiation and the regulation of the cell division plane in plants. A possible function of the CRL protein is discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Differentiation / genetics*
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology
  • Cell Division / genetics
  • Cell Division / physiology
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA, Complementary / chemistry
  • DNA, Complementary / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • Intracellular Membranes / metabolism*
  • Luminescent Proteins / genetics
  • Luminescent Proteins / metabolism
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics*
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Microscopy, Confocal
  • Microscopy, Electron
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Plastids / genetics*
  • Plastids / metabolism
  • Plastids / ultrastructure
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • CRUMPLED LEAF protein, Arabidopsis
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Luminescent Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • SCR protein, Arabidopsis
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AB120415