Investigating metabolism by unveiling the functions of the nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in the numerous intricate pathways ensuring energy homeostasis and fitness has been extremely rewarding. Major lines of research were initially determined by the first-characterized crucial roles of PPARalpha in fatty oxidation and of PPARgamma in adipocyte differentiation and lipid storage. Today, the molecular bases of the functional links between glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism, under the important but nonexclusive control of PPARalpha and PPARgamma, are starting to be uncovered. In addition, in the last couple of years evidence has been provided for an important role of PPARbeta (delta) in lipid metabolism. Inevitably, such actors of metabolic homeostasis are implicated in the physiopathology of complex metabolic disorders, such as those constituting the metabolic syndrome, resulting in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. This review presents a summary of the recent findings on their dual involvement in health and disease.