The effect of tobacco blend additives on the retention of nicotine and solanesol in the human respiratory tract and on subsequent plasma nicotine concentrations during cigarette smoking

Chem Res Toxicol. 2004 Apr;17(4):537-44. doi: 10.1021/tx0340753.


The influence of the tobacco additives diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAP) and urea on the delivery and respiratory tract retention of nicotine and solanesol and on the uptake of nicotine into venous blood was investigated in 10 smokers under mouth-hold and 75 and 500 mL inhalation conditions. Three cigarettes with identical physical specifications were produced from a common lamina tobacco blend. The control cigarette contained nonammoniated reconstituted tobacco sheet (RTS), whereas DAP and other ammonia compounds were added to the RTS of the second cigarette. Urea was added to the tobacco of the third cigarette. The presence of DAP or urea in the test cigarettes did not significantly influence solanesol retention within the mouth during the mouth-hold condition. Nicotine retention within the mouth during the mouth-hold condition was, however, significantly higher for the DAP cigarette (64.3 +/- 10.5%) than for the urea (53.3 +/- 11.3%) or control cigarette (46.3 +/- 8.6%), but this did not result in an increase in nicotine uptake into venous blood. Solanesol retentions during the 75 and 500 mL inhalation volume conditions and nicotine retentions during the 75 mL inhalation volume condition were not significantly different for the three cigarette types. Although the nicotine retention approached 100% with each cigarette type during the 500 mL inhalation condition, the nicotine retention for the urea-treated cigarette (99.6 +/- 0.2%) was marginally, but statistically, significant, higher than for the control (99.1 +/- 0.5%) and DAP-treated cigarettes (98.8 +/- 0.6%). There were no statistically significant differences between the indices of nicotine uptake into venous blood for the three cigarette types in any of the inhalation conditions.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Adult
  • Ganglionic Stimulants / blood
  • Ganglionic Stimulants / pharmacokinetics*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mouth
  • Nicotine / blood
  • Nicotine / pharmacokinetics*
  • Respiration
  • Respiratory System / chemistry*
  • Smoking*
  • Terpenes / blood
  • Terpenes / pharmacokinetics*
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Tobacco / chemistry*


  • Ganglionic Stimulants
  • Terpenes
  • Nicotine
  • solanesol