Synaptic vesicle endocytosis is believed to require calcium and the GTPase dynamin. We now report a form of rapid endocytosis (RE) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons that, unlike previously described forms of endocytosis, is independent of calcium and dynamin. The RE is tightly coupled to calcium-independent but voltage-dependent secretion (CIVDS). Using FM dye and capacitance measurements, we show that membrane depolarization induces RE in the absence of calcium. Inhibition of dynamin function does not affect RE. The magnitude of RE is proportional to that of preceding CIVDS and stimulation frequency. Inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) suppress RE induced by high-frequency depolarization, while PKA activators enhance RE induced by low-frequency depolarization. Biochemical experiments demonstrate that depolarization directly upregulates PKA activity in calcium-free medium. These results reveal a calcium- and dynamin-independent form of endocytosis, which is controlled by neuronal activity and PKA-dependent phosphorylation, in DRG neurons.