Fifteen or 18-month-old Aleppo pine seedlings were fumigated with different concentrations and doses of ozone over a period of 2-16 days in controlled-environmental growth chambers. The total fatty acid content and ultrastructure of the current year needles were subsequently analysed. In acute, high concentration exposures, significant reductions in the levels of linolenic acid were detected. Increases in myristic or palmitic acid were common in needles exposed to lower concentrations of ozone. Ultrastructural studies revealed reductions in chloroplast size and a darkening of stroma at low ozone exposures while at high concentrations disruption of the chloroplast membranes was also identified.