Fundus hemorrhages in infancy

Surv Ophthalmol. 1992 Jul-Aug;37(1):1-17. doi: 10.1016/0039-6257(92)90002-b.


The anatomical location and appearance of retinal hemorrhages in the infant provide important clues in the diagnosis of underlying disorders. While neonatal retinal hemorrhages related to birth trauma are common, benign, and self-limited, other retinal hemorrhages in infancy may signify intracranial aneurysms, accidental or non-accidental injury, and a variety of ocular (e.g., Coats' disease, PHPV, ROP, retinal dysplasia, hypertension, myopia) or systemic disease (e.g., hematologic or cardiovascular disorders, infection, protein C deficiency). In this review, retinal hemorrhages are illustrated and classified according to location, appearance, and etiology. Prompt diagnosis of retinal hemorrhages in infants is crucial, because treatment may be required to prevent early deprivation amblyopia and blindness. Ophthalmological findings may also be a valuable contribution to the overall medical evaluation of the infant.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Choroid Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Choroid Hemorrhage / pathology*
  • Fundus Oculi*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Retinal Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Retinal Hemorrhage / pathology*
  • Vitreous Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Vitreous Hemorrhage / pathology*