The ability of cells to respond to their surrounding environment and relay signals to the cell interior is essential for numerous processes during the development and maintenance of tissues. Eph receptors and their membrane-bound ligands, the ephrins, are unique in the receptor tyrosine kinase family in that their signaling is bidirectional, through both the receptor and the ligand. Eph receptors and ephrins are essential for a variety of biological processes, and play a particularly important role in regulating cell shape and cell movement. Recent data have linked Eph receptor-ephrin signaling complexes to the Ras and Rho families of small molecular weight GTPases and also to heterotrimeric G proteins. Understanding the signaling networks involved is an important step to understand the molecular basis for normal and defective cell-cell communication through Eph receptors and ephrins.