The family of facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins is responsible for the entry of glucose into cells throughout the periphery and the brain. The expression, regulation and activity of GLUTs play an essential role in neuronal homeostasis, since glucose represents the primary energy source for the brain. Brain GLUTs exhibit both cell type and region specific localizations suggesting that the transport of glucose across the blood-brain barrier is tightly regulated and compartmentalized. As seen in the periphery, insulin-sensitive GLUTs are expressed in the brain and therefore may participate in the central actions of insulin. The aim of this review will be to discuss the localization of GLUTs expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), with a special emphasis upon the recently identified GLUT isoforms. In addition, we will discuss the regulation, activity and insulin-stimulated trafficking of GLUTs in the CNS, especially in relation to the centrally mediated actions of insulin and glucose.