Translation initiation is important for the regulation of both cell growth and cell division. It is uniquely poised to coordinate overall cell proliferation by its effects on both growth and division. A number of translation initiation factors are transcriptional targets of c-myc in a variety of assays. In particular, the mRNA cap-binding protein eIF4E has a myc-binding sequence in its promoter that is myc responsive in reporter assays and contains a high-affinity myc-binding site in chromosome immunoprecipitation experiments. Several differential expression screens have demonstrated altered levels of eIF4E, along with several other translation initiation factors, in response to alterations of c-myc levels. The potential for eIF4E and other translational control elements to mediate myc's transforming functions is particularly important because eIF4E is itself a known oncogenic factor. The ability of translation initiation factors to affect both cell division control and cell growth control coincides with myc's remarkable effects on both cell growth and cell division.