HERV-K(HML-2) GAG/ENV antibodies as indicator for therapy effect in patients with germ cell tumors

Int J Cancer. 2004 Jun 20;110(3):459-61. doi: 10.1002/ijc.11649.


Germ cell tumors (GCT) are strictly associated with the expression of HERV-K(HML-2) proviruses, and the majority of GCT patients produce antibodies to structural proteins of these proviruses. The objective of our study was to determine the significance of the serological response to HERV-K(HML-2) Gag and Env proteins for diagnosis, management of GCT patients and estimation of the therapy success. The data document a strong association of HERV-K(HML-2) antibodies and the clinical manifestation of the disease and therapy success. HERV-K(HML-2) antibodies seem to have an important diagnostic value as well as indicator of chemotherapy success.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies / chemistry*
  • Antibodies, Viral*
  • Blotting, Western
  • Disease Progression
  • Endogenous Retroviruses / genetics*
  • Gene Products, env / immunology*
  • Gene Products, gag / immunology*
  • Genetic Therapy / methods*
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics
  • Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / immunology*
  • Proviruses / genetics
  • Time Factors
  • Viral Proteins / genetics*


  • Antibodies
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Gene Products, env
  • Gene Products, gag
  • HERV-K cORF protein, Human endogenous retrovirus K
  • Viral Proteins