Programmed cell deaths. Apoptosis and alternative deathstyles

Eur J Biochem. 2004 May;271(9):1638-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1432-1033.2004.04084.x.


Programmed cell death is a major component of both normal development and disease. The roles of cell death during either embryogenesis or pathogenesis, the signals that modulate this event, and the mechanisms of cell demise are the major subjects that drive research in this field. Increasing evidence obtained both in vitro and in vivo supports the hypothesis that a variety of cell death programs may be triggered in distinct circumstances. Contrary to the view that caspase-mediated apoptosis represents the standard programmed cell death, recent studies indicate that an apoptotic morphology can be produced independent of caspases, that autophagic execution pathways of cell death may be engaged without either the involvement of caspases or morphological signs of apoptosis, and that even the necrotic morphology of cell death may be consistently produced in some cases, including certain plants. Alternative cell death programs may imply novel therapeutic targets, with important consequences for attempts to treat diseases associated with disregulated programmed cell death.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis*
  • Autophagy
  • Humans
  • Mitochondria / physiology
  • Necrosis