Optimizing global risk evaluation in primary hypertension: the role of microalbuminuria and cardiovascular ultrasonography

J Hypertens. 2004 May;22(5):907-13. doi: 10.1097/00004872-200405000-00011.


Objective: To assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of microalbuminuria and cardiovascular ultrasonography in evaluating the risk profile in primary hypertension.

Methods: Four hundred and five untreated patients with primary hypertension underwent a routine, traditional work-up plus evaluation of albuminuria and ultrasound (US) assessment of cardiac and vascular structures. Albuminuria was measured as the albumin to creatinine ratio in three non-consecutive first-morning urine samples. Left ventricular mass index was assessed by MB-mode echocardiography and carotid intima-media thickness by high-resolution US scan. The impact of these tests on patient risk classes, as indicated by European Society of Hypertension-European Society of Cardiology (ESH-ESC) guidelines, was assessed with respect to their cost and sensitivity.

Results: The prevalence of microalbuminuria, left ventricular hypertrophy and carotid intima-media thickening or carotid plaque was 13, 49 and 32%, respectively. The combined use of albuminuria, cardiac and vascular ultrasonography led to the detection of a significantly higher percentage of patients at high/very high risk. The three tests differ in sensitivity (albuminuria, 20%; echocardiography, 65%; and carotid ultrasound, 41%). The signs of target organ damage (TOD) only partly cluster within the same subgroup of patients and, thus, all three tests should be performed in order to maximize the sensitivity of the evaluation process. The diagnostic algorithm yielding the lowest cost per detected case of TOD is the search for microalbuminuria followed by cardiac and carotid ultrasound assessment.

Conclusions: Ultrasonographic detection of TOD is a sensitive tool in the identification of high-risk patients, but should be preceded by a routine search for microalbuminuria in order to optimize the cost-effectiveness of the diagnostic work-up.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Albuminuria / diagnosis
  • Albuminuria / economics
  • Albuminuria / epidemiology*
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Echocardiography
  • Female
  • Global Health
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / economics
  • Hypertension / epidemiology*
  • Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / diagnostic imaging*
  • Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / economics
  • Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / epidemiology*
  • Kidney Diseases / diagnosis
  • Kidney Diseases / economics
  • Kidney Diseases / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Mass Screening / economics
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Assessment
  • Sensitivity and Specificity