Septic arthritis after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

Ann Acad Med Singap. 2004 Mar;33(2):228-34.

Abstract

Introduction: A retrospective review of postoperative infected anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction was done on 472 consecutive cases in one institution. The purpose was to assess the incidence, diagnosis, treatment and outcome factors.

Materials and methods: Out of 472 arthroscopic-assisted ACL reconstructions performed between 1999 and 2002, 7 (1%) postoperative deep intra-articular infections were detected. Seven males with a mean age of 23 years (range, 19 to 30 years) formed the study group; 3 had undergone prior knee surgery.

Results: Four patients had acute infection (<2 weeks), 3 had subacute infection (2 weeks to 2 months) and none had late infection (>2 months). All were admitted within 24 hours of onset of symptoms and underwent immediate arthroscopic lavage, incision and drainage of abscess, debridement with graft retention and intravenous (8 to 31 days) followed by oral (4 to 6 weeks) antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus was present in 4 patients, Peptostreptococcus in 3, Klebsiella in 1, and Enterobacter in 1. The patients underwent an average of 1.4 arthroscopic procedures (range, 1 to 3 procedures), with an average hospital stay of 17.3 days per patient. All were evaluated at an average of 11.7 months (range, 5 to 26 months). In all cases, the infection resolved with stable knees and with all grafts and implants retained. Although rare, early diagnosis and prompt treatment of infection can result in successful eradication without sacrificing the graft.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / physiopathology
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / surgery*
  • Arthritis, Infectious / ethnology
  • Arthritis, Infectious / microbiology*
  • Arthritis, Infectious / therapy
  • Arthroplasty / adverse effects*
  • Arthroscopy / adverse effects*
  • Asians*
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / etiology*
  • Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections / therapy
  • Humans
  • Knee Joint / physiopathology
  • Knee Joint / surgery
  • Male
  • Peptostreptococcus / isolation & purification
  • Range of Motion, Articular / physiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Staphylococcus aureus / isolation & purification
  • Treatment Outcome