Trace element status in plasma and erythrocytes in hyperemesis gravidarum

J Reprod Med. 2004 Mar;49(3):200-4.


Objective: To determine trace element status in plasma and erythrocytes hyperemetic women at presentation and after treatment.

Study design: Studies were carried out on 32 women with hyperemesis gravidarum. Thirteen non-vomiting, healthy, pregnant women served as controls. Copper, zinc and magnesium concentrations in both plasma and erythrocytes were estimated before and after treatment. Independent sample t test, paired sample t test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi2 test, Kruskall-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Spearman's correlation study were used for statistical analysis.

Results: There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in erythrocyte zinc, copper and magnesium concentration. Plasma zinc levels were significantly higher (P = .006), while plasma copper levels were significantly lower (P = .001) in the study group as compared to the controls, but plasma magnesium levels were not significantly altered. Treatment brought a significant decrease in plasma zinc levels (P = .001), increase in plasma copper concentration (P = .001) but no change in erythrocyte zinc, copper or magnesium concentration. When trace element levels were grouped according to the degree of ketonuria, no significant differences were found in the 2 groups.

Conclusion: Hyperemetic women had normal tissue zinc, copper and magnesium concentrations, and rehydration normalized the plasma zinc and copper levels. Otherwise, no significant effects on trace elements were noted.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Copper / blood
  • Copper / metabolism
  • Erythrocytes / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperemesis Gravidarum / blood*
  • Magnesium / blood
  • Magnesium / metabolism
  • Pregnancy
  • Trace Elements / blood
  • Trace Elements / metabolism*
  • Zinc / blood
  • Zinc / metabolism


  • Trace Elements
  • Copper
  • Magnesium
  • Zinc