Bronchiectasis in women may act more virulently. Identified gender and sex differences range from increased exposure risks to altered inflammatory responses. Common among the most well-documented examples is a differential immune response. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that chronic airway infection, most notably non-CF bronchiectasis, is a more common and more virulent disease in women. This is particularly evident in CF-and non-HIV-related environmental mycobacterial respiratory tract infections. Whether this represents an inflammatory-immune process, or environmental, anatomic, or other genetic difference remains to be detailed fully.