Bronchiectasis: sex and gender considerations

Clin Chest Med. 2004 Jun;25(2):361-72. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2004.01.011.


Bronchiectasis in women may act more virulently. Identified gender and sex differences range from increased exposure risks to altered inflammatory responses. Common among the most well-documented examples is a differential immune response. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that chronic airway infection, most notably non-CF bronchiectasis, is a more common and more virulent disease in women. This is particularly evident in CF-and non-HIV-related environmental mycobacterial respiratory tract infections. Whether this represents an inflammatory-immune process, or environmental, anatomic, or other genetic difference remains to be detailed fully.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bronchiectasis / epidemiology
  • Bronchiectasis / physiopathology*
  • Cystic Fibrosis / epidemiology
  • Cystic Fibrosis / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors