Increased gene expression and inflammatory cell infiltration caused by electroporation are both important for improving the efficacy of DNA vaccines

J Biotechnol. 2004 May 13;110(1):1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2004.01.015.


One potential reason for the enhancement of immune responses to DNA vaccines following electroporation is increased gene expression. However, the inflammatory response and accompanying cellular infiltration stimulated by electroporation may also be essential for enhancing immune responses to DNA vaccines. These parameters were investigated in pigs, using different electroporation conditions to induce different levels of gene expression and inflammation. Results indicated that the least effective strategy was conventional intramuscular injection where there was low gene expression and low inflammatory cell infiltration. The most efficacious strategy was plasmid administration immediately followed by electroporation. This latter set of conditions elicited a combination of high gene expression and high cellular infiltration. This indicates that electroporation enhances immune responses to DNA vaccines through increased gene expression and inflammatory cell infiltration.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Electroporation*
  • Female
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Transfer Techniques
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / genetics
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / metabolism
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Injections, Intramuscular
  • Interferon-gamma / biosynthesis
  • Leukocytes / immunology
  • Luciferases / metabolism
  • Male
  • Muscle, Skeletal / immunology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / pathology
  • Necrosis
  • Plasmids / administration & dosage
  • Plasmids / genetics
  • Plasmids / immunology
  • Swine
  • Time Factors
  • Up-Regulation
  • Vaccines, DNA / administration & dosage*
  • Vaccines, DNA / genetics
  • Vaccines, DNA / immunology*
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / genetics
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / metabolism
  • Viral Proteins


  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
  • Vaccines, DNA
  • Viral Envelope Proteins
  • Viral Proteins
  • bovine herpesvirus type-1 glycoproteins
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Luciferases