Three methods of breathing retraining (guided breathing retraining, guided breathing retraining with physiologic monitoring of thoracic and abdominal movement plus peripheral temperature, and guided breathing retraining with physiologic monitoring of thoracic and abdominal movement, peripheral temperature and end-tidal carbon dioxide) were compared with a no-treatment control group to determine the effectiveness of breathing retraining on modifying respiratory physiology and reducing functional cardiac symptoms in subjects with signs associated with hyperventilation syndrome. Of 41 subjects studied, 16 were diagnosed with mitral valve prolapse. Results demonstrated that all 3 methods of breathing retraining were equally effective in modifying respiratory physiology and reducing the frequency of functional cardiac symptoms. Results determined that respiratory rate and subject's perception that training had generalized were the best predictors of treatment success. Furthermore, it was found that subjects with mitral valve prolapse responded as well to treatment as did those without prolapse.