In a case-control study in Uganda, we examined associations between different cancer sites or types in relation to antibodies against human papillomaviruses (HPV)-16, -18 and -45. For each cancer site or type, the control group comprised all other cancers excluding those known, or thought to be associated with HPV infection (cancers of the uterine cervix, penis and eye). Among controls the seroprevalence of antibodies was 11% (68/616) against HPV-16, 5% (29/605) against HPV-18 and 6% (35/605) against HPV-45. Antibodies against HPV-16 were significantly associated with only two cancers: uterine cervix [prevalence of antibodies 27% (51/191); odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.1, P=0.01] and penis [prevalence of antibodies 27% (4/15); OR 6.4, 95% CI 1.7-24.3, P=0.01]. For both cancers, the risk increased with increasing anti-HPV-16 antibody titre (Ptrend=0.01 for each). No cancer site or type was significantly associated with antibodies against HPV-18 and -45.