The glamour and gloom of glycogen synthase kinase-3

Trends Biochem Sci. 2004 Feb;29(2):95-102. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2003.12.004.


Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is now recognized as a key component of a surprisingly large number of cellular processes and diseases. Several mechanisms play a part in controlling the actions of GSK3, including phosphorylation, protein complex formation, and subcellular distribution. These are used to control and direct the far-reaching influences of GSK3 on cellular structure, growth, motility and apoptosis. Dysregulation of GSK3 is linked to several prevalent pathological conditions, such as diabetes and/or insulin resistance, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, much effort is currently directed towards understanding the functions and control of GSK3, and identifying methods capable of diminishing the deleterious impact of GSK3 in pathological conditions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease / enzymology*
  • Alzheimer Disease / pathology
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Movement
  • Cell Survival
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / enzymology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / enzymology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / pathology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic*
  • Glycogen Synthase / metabolism
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / genetics*
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological
  • Phosphorylation
  • Subcellular Fractions / metabolism
  • Substrate Specificity


  • Glycogen Synthase
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3