Backcross inbred lines (BILs) were developed in which chromosome segments of Lactuca saligna (wild lettuce) were introgressed into L. sativa (lettuce). These lines were developed by four to five backcrosses and one generation of selfing. The first three generations of backcrossing were random. Marker-assisted selection began in the BC(4) generation and continued until the final set of BILs was reached. A set of 28 lines was selected that together contained 96% of the L. saligna genome. Of these lines, 20 had a single homozygous introgression (BILs), four had two homozygous introgressions (doubleBILs) and four lines had a heterozygous single introgression (preBILs). Segregation ratios in backcross generations were compared to distorted segregation ratios in an F(2) population, and the results indicated that most of the distorted segregations can be explained by genetic effects on pollen- or egg-cell fitness. By means of BIL association mapping we were able to map 12 morphological traits and hundreds of additional amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) markers. The total AFLP map now comprises 757 markers. This set of BILs is very useful for future genetic studies.