In order to help the hydro-agricultural projects in the management of water resources together with a schistosomiasis control programme, it is important to evaluate the extent of the problem. This is the reason why parasitological and clinical surveys were conducted in schools associated with malacological surveys in transmission sites of several water projects including the one from Sourou. The data-collecting for the research on molluscs was carried out in surface water and as for parasitologic investigations on school-aged children, urine filtration and Kato-Katz were used to evaluate the parasitic load. The levels of prevalence were respectively in Guiédougou, Niassan, Di and Toma-île, in 2000, 60.5%, 40%, 48.8% and 51.9% for the urinary schistosomiasis, 5.3%, 0%, 6.9% and 50.6% for the intestinal schistosomiasis and in 2002, 56%, 51.9%, 51.6% and 43.4% for the urinary schistosomiasis, 10.1%, 8.2%, 22.7% and 90.8% for the intestinal schistosomiasis. The molluscs species collected and identified were: Biomphalaria pfeifferi for the intestinal schistosomiasis and Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi and B. senegalensis for the urinary schistosomiasis. B. senegalensis and B. truncatus were found naturally infested by S. haematobium. Water projects constitute amplifying factors of the proliferation of the species and parasitic exchange. All the actors (developers, populations, scientists) are questioning the means at their disposal to reduce the development of schistosomiasis which decrease the expected benefit of hydro-agricultural installations.