Objective: Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been implicated in lowering net acid excretion (NAE), but few studies have directly examined NAE and urinary calcium effects. Further, there is no evidence that only fresh fruits and vegetables must be consumed for a beneficial effect on bone.
Methods: A crossover, acute-load study was designed to investigate whether processed fruit was as effective as fresh fruit in reducing NAE and protein-induced hypercalciuria. Fifteen women completed three dietary treatments on three different mornings. A fasting urine sample was collected before consuming one of the following three isocaloric high-protein treatments: control, fresh apples, and processed applesauce. The serving size for the applesauce treatment was 2.5 times that for fresh apples. Urine was collected at baseline (0 h) and at 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 h.
Results: Compared with baseline, NAE increased after control treatment but decreased after fresh or processed apple treatment (P = 0.041). Calcium excretion increased with all treatments by 3 h; however, the increase was less for fresh apple and applesauce (P = 0.024).
Conclusions: In an acute feeding model, fruit intake reduced NAE and urinary calcium excretion. Processed fruit appears to be effective, although a larger serving size was needed than with fresh fruit.