Exercise-induced intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting in healthy humans

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004 Sep;97(3):797-805. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00137.2004. Epub 2004 Apr 23.


We hypothesized that increasing exercise intensity recruits dormant arteriovenous intrapulmonary shunts, which may contribute to the widened alveolar-arterial oxygen difference seen with exercise. Twenty-three healthy volunteers (13 men and 10 women, aged 23-48 yr) with normal lung function and a wide range of fitness (mean maximal oxygen uptake = 126% predicted; range = 78-200% predicted) were studied by agitated saline contrast echocardiography (4-chamber apical view). All 23 subjects had normal resting contrast echocardiograms without evidence of intracardiac or intrapulmonary shunting. However, with cycle ergometer exercise, 21 of 23 (91%) of the subjects showed a delayed (>3 cardiac cycles) appearance of contrast bubbles in the left heart. This pattern is consistent with passage of contrast bubbles through the pulmonary circulation. Because the contrast bubbles are known to be significantly larger than pulmonary capillaries, we propose that they are traveling through direct arteriovenous intrapulmonary shunts. In all cases, the intrapulmonary shunting developed at submaximal oxygen uptakes [%maximal oxygen uptake = 59 +/- 20 (SD)] and once evident persisted at all subsequent work rates. Within 3 min of exercise termination, the contrast echocardiograms with bubble injection showed no evidence of intrapulmonary shunting. These dynamic shunts will contribute significantly to the widened alveolar-arterial oxygen difference seen with exercise. They may also act as a protective parallel vascular network limiting the rise in regional pulmonary vascular pressure while preserving cardiac output during exercise.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological / physiology
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Blood Flow Velocity
  • Echocardiography
  • Exercise Test
  • Female
  • Heart Ventricles / diagnostic imaging
  • Heart Ventricles / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Lung / blood supply*
  • Lung / diagnostic imaging
  • Lung / physiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxygen Consumption / physiology*
  • Physical Endurance / physiology*
  • Physical Exertion / physiology*
  • Pulmonary Artery / diagnostic imaging
  • Pulmonary Artery / physiopathology
  • Pulmonary Circulation / physiology*
  • Pulmonary Gas Exchange / physiology
  • Pulmonary Veins / diagnostic imaging
  • Pulmonary Veins / physiopathology
  • Respiratory Function Tests