Maxillary post-traumatic outcome correction literature review and our experience. Part I: maxillary bone non-unions-"poor bone positioning"

Minerva Stomatol. 2004 Apr;53(4):151-64.
[Article in English, Italian]


Still today, there is no classification of non-unions in maxillofacial traumatology. There is a broad spectrum of definitions that simultaneously describe the pathological conditions and functional implications determined by the anatomical location of the fractures and the time factor. In this article the authors describe a literature review about bone non-union classification. Weber, in 1973, introduced the term "pseudo-arthrosis" to describe an altered process of bone healing characterised by the presence of fibrous tissue interposed between the fracture segments, that was lined with cartilaginous tissue and joined by a capsule; Spiessl, in 1988, used the term "non-union" to define any alteration of the bone healing process after a time period of more than 6 months from the initial traumatic event; Rosen, in 1990, proposed a new classification of the modes of altered bone healing in fractures, distinguishing 5 categories: delayed consolidation, non-union, non-union vascular, non union avascular, pseudoarthrosis. The authors also talk about "poor bone positioning". This factor describes the incorrect anatomical position of the bone fragments despite perfectly normal healing according to Gruss. In this article they also discuss about the treatment of non-unions and the treatment of occlusal alterations caused by poor post-traumatic bone positioning.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bone Plates
  • Fracture Fixation, Internal
  • Fracture Healing*
  • Fractures, Ununited / classification
  • Fractures, Ununited / complications
  • Fractures, Ununited / rehabilitation
  • Fractures, Ununited / surgery
  • Fractures, Ununited / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Malocclusion / etiology
  • Malocclusion / therapy
  • Mandibular Fractures / complications
  • Mandibular Fractures / rehabilitation
  • Mandibular Fractures / surgery
  • Mandibular Fractures / therapy*
  • Maxillary Fractures / complications
  • Maxillary Fractures / rehabilitation
  • Maxillary Fractures / surgery
  • Maxillary Fractures / therapy*
  • Maxillofacial Injuries / complications
  • Maxillofacial Injuries / rehabilitation
  • Maxillofacial Injuries / surgery
  • Maxillofacial Injuries / therapy*
  • Osteotomy, Le Fort
  • Pseudarthrosis / etiology
  • Pseudarthrosis / therapy