Structures of HIV-1 RT-DNA complexes before and after incorporation of the anti-AIDS drug tenofovir

Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004 May;11(5):469-74. doi: 10.1038/nsmb760. Epub 2004 Apr 25.


Tenofovir, also known as PMPA, R-9-(2-(phosphonomethoxypropyl)adenine, is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor. We have determined the crystal structures of two related complexes of HIV-1 RT with template primer and tenofovir: (i) a ternary complex at a resolution of 3.0 A of RT crosslinked to a dideoxy-terminated DNA with tenofovir-diphosphate bound as the incoming substrate; and (ii) a RT-DNA complex at a resolution of 3.1 A with tenofovir at the 3' primer terminus. The tenofovir nucleotide in the tenofovir-terminated structure seems to adopt multiple conformations. Some nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, including 3TC and AZT, have elements ('handles') that project beyond the corresponding elements on normal dNTPs (the 'substrate envelope'). HIV-1 RT resistance mechanisms to AZT and 3TC take advantage of these handles; tenofovir's structure lacks handles that could protrude through the substrate envelope to cause resistance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adenine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Adenine / chemistry*
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA, Viral / chemistry*
  • HIV Reverse Transcriptase / chemistry*
  • Models, Molecular
  • Organophosphonates*
  • Organophosphorus Compounds / chemistry*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / chemistry*
  • Tenofovir


  • DNA Primers
  • DNA, Viral
  • Organophosphonates
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
  • Tenofovir
  • HIV Reverse Transcriptase
  • Adenine

Associated data

  • PDB/1T03
  • PDB/1T05